Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a chronic and progressive movement disorder that affects the central nervous system. It is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing cells in a region of the brain called the substantia nigra. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in movement, and a lack of dopamine leads to the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease.


The hallmark motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease include tremors, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural instability. In addition to these motor symptoms, people with Parkinson’s disease may also experience non-motor symptoms such as depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and cognitive changes.


Parkinson’s disease usually develops slowly over time, and the severity and progression of the disease can vary widely from person to person. While there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease, there are treatments available that can help to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.


The prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in India is difficult to estimate due to the lack of large-scale population-based studies. However, some studies suggest that the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in India is lower than in Western countries, with an estimated prevalence of 70-100 cases per 100,000 population. It is worth noting that the incidence and prevalence of Parkinson’s disease tend to increase with age, and as India’s population continues to age, the burden of Parkinson’s disease may increase in the coming years.



There are several types of Parkinson’s disease, which are distinguished by their underlying causes, clinical features, and progression. The main types of Parkinson’s disease include:

  • Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease: This is the most common form of Parkinson’s disease and occurs without any known cause. It is typically diagnosed after the age of 50 and progresses slowly over several years.
  • Juvenile Parkinson’s disease: This rare form of Parkinson’s disease occurs in individuals under the age of 20. It is typically caused by genetic mutations and progresses more rapidly than idiopathic Parkinson’s disease.
  • Atypical Parkinsonian disorders: These are a group of disorders that share some clinical features with Parkinson’s disease but have distinct underlying causes and clinical courses. Examples of atypical Parkinsonian disorders include multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD).
  • Drug-induced Parkinsonism: Some medications, such as antipsychotics, can cause symptoms that mimic Parkinson’s disease. This type of Parkinsonism typically resolves after the medication is discontinued.
  • Secondary Parkinsonism: Parkinsonism can also be caused by other underlying conditions, such as head injury, stroke, or brain tumours.



The exact cause of Parkinson’s disease is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some of the factors that are believed to contribute to the development of Parkinson’s disease include:

  • Genetics: Mutations in certain genes have been associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. However, these genetic mutations account for only a small percentage of cases.
  • Environmental factors: Exposure to certain toxins, such as pesticides and herbicides, has been linked to an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease. Other environmental factors that may play a role include head injuries, viral infections, and rural living.
  • Brain changes: Parkinson’s disease is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in a region of the brain called the substantia nigra. This leads to a decrease in dopamine levels, which causes the characteristic motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Protein build-up: The accumulation of a protein called alpha-synuclein in the brain is thought to play a role in the development of Parkinson’s disease. This protein forms clumps called Lewy bodies, which are found in the brains of people with Parkinson’s disease.
  • Inflammation: Chronic inflammation in the brain may contribute to the development of Parkinson’s disease. Inflammatory processes are believed to play a role in the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons.



Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects the motor system, leading to a wide range of symptoms that can impact a person’s mobility, speech, and quality of life. The following are some of the most common symptoms of Parkinson’s disease:

  • Tremors: The most well-known symptom of Parkinson’s disease is tremors, which typically occur in the hands, fingers, arms, or legs. Tremors often start on one side of the body and can eventually spread to both sides.
  • Rigidity: Parkinson’s disease can cause stiffness and rigidity in the muscles, making it difficult to move or perform simple tasks. This can also cause pain and discomfort in the affected muscles.
  • Bradykinesia: This refers to slow movement and difficulty initiating movements. People with Parkinson’s disease may have trouble with activities that require fine motor skills, such as writing, buttoning clothes, or using utensils.
  • Postural instability: Parkinson’s disease can cause balance problems, making it difficult to stand or walk without assistance. This can increase the risk of falls and injuries.
  • Akinesia: This refers to a difficulty in initiating movement, such as starting to walk or stand up from a chair. It can also cause freezing of gait, where a person suddenly stops walking or has difficulty moving forward.
  • Speech and swallowing difficulties: Parkinson’s disease can cause changes in speech, such as a softer or slurred voice, as well as difficulty swallowing or drooling.
  • Non-motor symptoms: Parkinson’s disease can also cause a range of non-motor symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, constipation, and cognitive changes.



Parkinson’s disease (PD) can lead to several complications, which can significantly affect the quality of life of individuals. Some of the common complications associated with PD include:

  • Motor complications: Over time, the effectiveness of medications used to manage PD symptoms can reduce, leading to motor complications such as dyskinesia, dystonia, and motor fluctuations. Dyskinesia refers to involuntary, jerky movements, while dystonia is a sustained muscle contraction that can cause twisting and abnormal postures. Motor fluctuations, on the other hand, refer to the unpredictable changes in motor function that occur despite medication use.
  • Non-motor symptoms: PD can also cause a range of non-motor symptoms such as depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, constipation, urinary problems, and cognitive changes. These symptoms can significantly affect the individual’s quality of life and require management.
  • Falls and injuries: Due to impaired balance and coordination, individuals with PD are at a higher risk of falls and injuries. Falls can cause fractures, head injuries, and other serious complications, which can further reduce the individual’s mobility and independence.
  • Dementia: While not all individuals with PD develop dementia, it is a common complication of the disease, especially in older adults. Dementia can significantly affect cognitive function, memory, and daily functioning.
  • Swallowing difficulties: PD can cause swallowing difficulties or dysphagia, which can lead to aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration.
  • Sleep disorders: Sleep disturbances such as insomnia, restless leg syndrome, and sleep apnoea are common in individuals with PD. These sleep disorders can cause daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and impaired quality of life.

Role of Neurotherapy: Neurotherapy has been considered as an alternative treatment option for individuals with Parkinson’s disease when other conventional treatments have not been successful in managing the symptoms effectively. Neurotherapy has indeed emerged as an effective therapeutic approach for managing Parkinson’s disease, yielding promising results.

  • Promoting Optimal Digestion and Addressing UDF: Adequate digestion is of utmost importance for the efficient absorption and utilization of essential nutrients, which are vital for overall bodily health and optimal functioning, including the intricate nervous system. Disturbances or disorders within the gastrointestinal system can indirectly impact the nervous system and potentially contribute to the development of paralysis.

In line with the fundamental principles of neurotherapy, it is posited that the underlying cause of various diseases, particularly those linked to impaired digestion, can be attributed to undigested food particles that remain unprocessed and are subsequently expelled from the body. Until this underlying factor is addressed through appropriate intervention, complete alleviation of the disease is unlikely to be attained. Therefore, neurotherapy embraces the utilization of the UDF (Undigested Food Particle) technique as a fundamental aspect of its treatment approach, recognizing it as a successful and efficacious strategy.

  • Enhancing metabolism: Metabolism refers to the complex set of chemical reactions that occur within the cells of the body to convert nutrients into energy and essential molecules needed for various biological processes. One aspect of metabolism that has been implicated in Parkinson’s disease is mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are cellular organelles responsible for generating energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through oxidative phosphorylation. Dysfunction in the mitochondria can lead to impaired energy production and an increase in oxidative stress, both of which are believed to contribute to the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease.

In neurotherapy, specific points or techniques are established based on the principles of digestion and metabolism to facilitate the natural resolution of symptoms. These approaches focus on enhancing the body’s digestive processes and metabolic efficiency, thereby promoting self-correction and symptom alleviation. The digestive system plays a vital role in breaking down food, extracting nutrients, and eliminating waste products. When digestion is impaired or inefficient, it can disrupt the balance of the body’s systems, potentially leading to the manifestation of various symptoms and health issues. Neurotherapy recognizes the significance of optimal digestion in overall well-being and employs targeted techniques to address digestive concerns. Similarly, metabolism refers to the chemical processes that occur within the body to convert food into energy and sustain vital functions. When the metabolic processes are compromised or imbalanced, it can negatively impact overall health and contribute to the emergence of symptoms. Neurotherapy recognizes the importance of a well-functioning metabolism and integrates specific techniques to support and enhance metabolic efficiency.

  • Natural approach for generation of Pure Neurotransmitter- Dopamine: Parkinson’s disease is closely associated with alterations in neurotransmitter function, particularly the neurotransmitter dopamine. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals between neurons in the brain and play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including movement, cognition, and emotions. In Parkinson’s disease, there is a progressive degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in a brain region called the substantia nigra. This loss of dopamine results in an imbalance of neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine, acetylcholine, and other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and norepinephrine. Dopamine depletion is primarily responsible for the characteristic motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. These symptoms arise due to the disruption in the intricate balance between the excitatory and inhibitory signals within the basal ganglia, a region involved in motor control.
  • Boosting Thiamine Levels to Support Optimal Neurotransmission: Thiamin is an essential vitamin that plays a crucial role in the proper functioning of the nervous system, including the production of certain neurotransmitters. Individuals with Parkinson’s disease may have lower levels of thiamin in their blood or cerebrospinal fluid. Thiamin deficiency has been associated with symptoms that resemble Parkinson’s disease, such as movement abnormalities and cognitive impairments.

Through the application of neurotherapy techniques, the nervous system is stimulated in a targeted manner, leading to a natural and enhanced production of thiamine. This increased thiamine availability helps facilitate optimal neurotransmission, ensuring that nerve impulses are transmitted in a precise and efficient manner. By promoting the stimulation of thiamine through neurotherapy, individuals can experience improved cognitive function, enhanced neural connectivity, and a more effective communication network within the body. This, in turn, aids in maintaining overall neurological health and supports the proper transmission of impulses, contributing to overall well-being.

  • Basal Ganglia Formula: The basal ganglia and Parkinson’s disease are closely linked. The basal ganglia are a group of structures deep within the brain that play a critical role in motor control and coordination. It helps regulate voluntary movements, posture, and muscle tone. In Parkinson’s disease, there is a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in a specific region of the basal ganglia called the substantia nigra. These neurons produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is essential for smooth and coordinated movement. As the dopamine-producing cells are progressively lost, there is a significant reduction in dopamine levels in the basal ganglia. The decreased dopamine levels in the basal ganglia disrupt the normal functioning of the motor circuitry, leading to the characteristic motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. These symptoms include tremors, rigidity (stiffness), bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. The loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia affects the balance between two major pathways within the circuitry: the direct pathway and the indirect pathway. This disruption results in an imbalance of signals and an overactivity of the indirect pathway, leading to the motor symptoms observed in Parkinson’s disease.


Neurotherapy employs a specialized treatment approach that targets the underlying causes related to basal ganglia dysfunction. One of the key components of this approach is the utilization of a specific treatment formula called the medulla formula. Designed to enhance brain circulation and optimize neuronal impulses, the medulla formula plays a crucial role in mitigating rigidity and enhancing motor function. In neurotherapy, the medulla formula is specifically aimed at addressing the medulla oblongata, a vital structure located at the base of the brainstem. This region assumes a pivotal role in regulating various autonomic functions, including cardiovascular activity, respiratory rhythm, and motor coordination. By administering the medulla formula, neurotherapy seeks to augment blood flow and oxygenation to the basal ganglia and associated structures, thereby fostering optimal functioning of the motor pathways. Consequently, this approach aids in diminishing rigidity, a commonly observed symptom associated with basal ganglia dysfunction that can contribute to Parkinson’s disease.


Furthermore, the medulla formula aspires to optimize neuronal impulses within the basal ganglia and its interconnected regions. By facilitating efficient signal transmission between the brain and muscles, neurotherapy endeavours to improve motor control and coordination, ultimately resulting in a reduction of Parkinson’s symptoms.


Moreover, neurotherapy stimulates the natural production of dopamine within the body, functioning in a similar manner to the allopathic drug Syndopa. Neurotherapy, as a therapeutic approach, aims to enhance the body’s inherent ability to produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in motor control and coordination. By utilizing specific techniques and interventions, neurotherapy stimulates the brain’s dopamine-producing cells, promoting their optimal functioning. The natural production of dopamine through neurotherapy offers a parallel effect to that of Syndopa, an allopathic medication commonly prescribed for individuals with dopamine deficiency, such as those with Parkinson’s disease. Syndopa works by supplementing dopamine levels in the brain, compensating for the diminished production caused by the condition. In contrast, neurotherapy seeks to harness the body’s own mechanisms to stimulate dopamine production. This approach holds the potential for sustained and regulated dopamine levels, promoting better motor function, reducing symptoms of dopamine-related disorders, and potentially minimizing the need for external medications.