The loss of brain tissue, known as cerebral atrophy, is a symptom of numerous neurological disorders. Cell size reduction, which can occur with atrophy of any tissue, is a result of the progressive loss of cytoplasmic proteins. Atrophic changes in brain tissue are characterised by a decline in the number of neurons and their connections to one another. There are two types of atrophy: generalised, in which the entire brain has shrunk, and focal, in which only a specific region of the brain is affected, leading to a decline in the abilities normally controlled by that region. Conscious thought and voluntary processes may be impaired if the cerebral hemispheres (the two lobes of the brain that make up the cerebrum) are affected.
Several regions of the brain are susceptible to atrophy.
👨⚕️🩺👴Cells in specific regions of the brain are affected by focal atrophy, leading to dysfunction in those regions.
👨⚕️🩺👴Cells throughout the brain are impacted by generalised atrophy.