Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular Dystrophy

The term “muscular dystrophy” (also abbreviated as “MD”) refers to a group of diseases that affect the muscles and cause them to gradually deteriorate and become weaker over time. Muscular dystrophy is a condition in which abnormal genes, also known as mutations, impede the production of proteins that are necessary for the formation of healthy muscle. There are nine primary classifications of muscular dystrophy, each of which subdivides into more than thirty distinct forms. [1][2] The most prevalent form is called Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and it typically first manifests in males between the ages of four and ten. Genetic mutations are the root cause of muscular dystrophy. These mutations disrupt the normal production of muscle proteins, which are essential for the development and upkeep of strong, healthy muscles. The causes are genetic. It is more likely that an individual will be affected by muscular dystrophy if there is a history of the disease in their family.


A waddling gait

Muscle soreness and stiffness throughout the body

Inability to run and jump without excessive effort

Walking on toes

Difficulty rising to a sitting or standing position

Learning difficulties, such as developing speech later than is typical Recurrent instances of falling below the expected level

Incapacity to move around

A shortening of the muscles as well as the tendons, which further restricts movement.

Problems with breathing can become so severe that it becomes necessary to use assisted breathing.

If the muscles in the back are not strong enough to support the structure of the spine, this can lead to curvature in the spine.

It is possible for the heart's muscles to become weakened, which can result in cardiac problems.

Swallowing difficulties, which may increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia