Muscular Dystrophy:

 

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time. In muscular dystrophy, abnormal genes (mutations) interfere with the production of proteins needed to form healthy muscle.There are nine main categories of muscular dystrophy that contain more than thirty specific types.[1][2] The most common type is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) which typically affects males beginning around the age of four. Muscular dystrophy is caused by genetic mutations that interfere with the production of muscle proteins that are needed to build and maintain healthy muscles. The causes are genetic. A family history of muscular dystrophy will increase the chance of it affecting an individual.

 

*Symptoms:

  • A waddling gait
  • Pain and stiffness in the muscles
  • Difficulty with running and jumping
  • Walking on toes
  • Difficulty sitting up or standing
  • Learning disabilities, such as developing speech later than usual
  • Frequent falls
  • Nability to walk
  • A shortening of muscles and tendons, further limiting movement
  • Breathing problems can become so severe that assisted breathing is necessary
  • Curvature of the spine can be caused if muscles are not strong enough to support its structure
  • The muscles of the heart can be weakened, leading to cardiac problems
  • Difficulty swallowing, with a risk of aspiration pneumonia

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